Mainline receipt point on a pipeline.
The amount of heat produced by the complete combustion of a unit quantity of fuel. The gross, or higher, heating value is that which is obtained when all of the products of combustion are cooled to the temperature existing before combustion, the water vapor formed during combustion is condensed, and all the necessary corrections have been made. The net, or lower, heating value is obtained by subtracting the latent heat of vaporization of the water vapor formed by the combustion of the hydrogen in the fuel from the gross, or higher, heating value.
The fuel oils remaining after the lighter oils have been distilled off during the refining process.
To offset a position with the intent of managing risk. The process of protecting the value of an investment from the risk of loss in case the price fluctuates. Hedging is accomplished by protecting one transaction with another. A long position in an underlying instrument can be hedged or protected with an offsetting short position in a related underlying instrument.
A light, colorless, nonflammable gaseous element found especially in conjunction with natural gas and used mainly in cryogenic applications, medical technology, military uses and welding.
The helium constituent in crude helium.
The mixture of elemental helium and other constituents of natural gas, principally nitrogen, extracted from natural gas by helium extraction plants. Crude helium is typically 60-80% contained helium.
Helium that is of a high level of purity after the processing of crude helium.
Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI)
A formula for defining market concentration by summing the squares of the individual market shares of all participants.
A pipeline company (defined by the Natural Gas Act and exempted from FERC jurisdiction under the NGA) defined as a regulated company engaged in transportation in interstate commerce, or the sale in interstate commerce for resale, of natural gas received by that company from another person within or at the boundary of a state, if all the natural gas so received is ultimately consumed within such state. A Hinshaw pipeline may receive a certificate authorizing it to transport natural gas out of the state in which it is located, without giving up its status as a Hinshaw pipeline.
Historic Sales Customers
A pipeline's traditional customers who purchased bundled sales service from the pipeline prior to Order No. 636.
Open freight cars with a floor sloping to one or more hinged doors for discharging bulk materials such as coal.
Host Control Area
The control area within the metered boundaries a unit not owned by the host or a unit jointly owned by the host and another entity is physically located.
The maximum demand for energy from a transmission or distribution system in any hourly period of time.
Data measured on a clock-hour basis.
An interchange where multiple pipelines interconnect and form a market center.
Organic compound made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Heavier fossil fuels, such as coal, have a large ratio of carbon to hydrogen, while natural gas (methane) is the lightest hydrocarbon, with one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen (CH4). Natural gas liquids are heavier than methane but lighter than crude oil. Crude oil is a complex of many hydrocarbons.